What's Different in California?

Unique Employment and Labor Laws for California Employees

Many employers are located in other states, but have employees who work in California. Legal requirements in California prevail over other state laws and, in some cases, supersede federal laws. California regulations are enforced by six different state regulatory agencies. In comparison, other states are usually subject to only two or three. If you have California employees, get the HR assistance you need from CEA!

For more information review this chart of Employment Laws and Companies They Affect

Below are requirements exclusive to workers in California. Access our tool kits for more assistance here.

Money and time Illustration
Wage & Hour Issues

Minimum Wages

As opposed to the Federal minimum wage of $7.25 per hour, effective Jan. 1, 2022, California’s minimum wage is $14.00 per hour for employers with 25 or fewer employees and $15.00 per hour for employers with 26 or more employees (in 2023 we max out at $15.00/ hour for all employers). These minimum wages also impact the minimum salary that must be paid for executive, administrative, and professional employees to be exempt to avoid misclassification problems. (Two times the applicable state minimum wage multiplied by 2080 hours.)

Throughout the state, 有很多城市工资和生活工资超过了加州的最低工资法律. See the “Minimum Wage Inc. Local & PSL” Fact Sheet, which is also available under HR Forms, Category: Scheduling, Pay.

Wage Theft Protection Act—Required Notice

雇主须在聘用雇员时,以书面向雇员提供具体资料,并应要求向其他雇员提供资料,以告知每名雇员其权利. 劳动专员已经开发了一种表格,雇主可以选择使用以遵守这些规定.

California Labor Code section 2810.5要求雇主给新雇用的非免税雇员一个通知,披露工资水平, regular payday, employer name and address, and information regarding paid sick leave as applicable to that employee. Employers must also notify employees within seven days of any changes to this information. While employers are not required to use the form provided by the Labor Commissioner, 强烈建议您使用由劳工专员准备的表格 on its website in multiple languages.


Timely Payment of Wages, Including Final Pay

Timely wage payment rules are very strict in California. For each late paycheck, California’s Labor Code allows the recovery of up to $200, plus 25% of the amount unlawfully withheld, per employee, per payroll period.

非自愿解雇(解雇或下岗)的员工必须支付所有未支付的工资, including accrued but unused vacation or paid time off, at their time of discharge. This rule applies to all employees, including those who are released after completing a specific job assignment, even if the assignment is as short as one day as well as remote employees.

自愿终止雇佣关系的雇员,如果他们至少提前72小时发出通知,必须在雇佣的最后一天收到最后的工资. If an employee walks off the job, 雇主有72小时的时间(无论你的公司是否营业)来给雇员发放最后的工资.  

如果员工向劳动专员提出索赔,不符合这些支付规则的员工可能会被处以最高30天的工资罚款.


Pay Stub Rules

With each paycheck, an employee must receive, or be provided no-cost access to, 有11项独立项目的书面报表(工资存根或其他书面文件), such as:

• The inclusive dates of the pay period
• Name of the employee and social security number (only the last four digits)
• Name and address of the employer
•所有适用的小时工资在支付期间生效,以及员工按每小时工资标准工作的相应小时数

雇主还必须在工资存根上显示员工有多少天的强制性带薪病假, or on a document issued the same day as the paycheck. If an employer provides unlimited paid sick leave or unlimited paid time off, 雇主可以在工资发放当日提供给雇员的工资存根或其他文件上注明“无限”字样.

如果每次工资中没有包含所有需要的信息,每个员工将被处以100美元的罚款, per violation, up to a maximum of $4,000 per employee. The risk and potential impact: Penalties up to $4,000, per employee.

加州法律还要求雇主保留所有工资记录的副本,显示每日工作时间和支付给员工的工资至少三年, at the place of employment or at a central location within the State of California. 如果不允许现任或前任员工查看工资记录,每违反一次将被处以750美元的罚款.


Payroll Deductions

在加州,雇主在其他州进行的普通工资扣减通常是非法的. Examples of unlawful deductions include those taken for: uniforms, lost safety equipment, broken supplies and other business losses resulting from the employee’s simple negligence. Penalties for employers are up to $200, plus 25% of the amount unlawfully withheld, per employee, per payroll period.


Meal and Rest Periods

加州对所有非豁免员工有员工友好的休息和午餐要求,这在其他州没有听说过,也没有被联邦法律所要求.

在加利福尼亚,休息和用餐的时间和持续时间是非常具体的. If they are not provided as required, employers must self impose a penalty, payable to the employee, equal to one hour of the employees’ regular rate of pay. 这些罚款被视为工资,雇员可以在长达四年的时间里获得罚款. 雇主未于违规行为发生期间之发薪日缴付罚款者, 员工可能会要求额外的惩罚,包括对每一个“薪酬过低”的发薪日支付违约金.”


Independent Contractors


将工人正确地归类为雇员或独立承包商是一项重要的任务——如果不能正确地归类,可能会导致错过用餐和休息时间, overtime and other wage and hour claims and penalties. 加州已经不再使用“控制权”这一最常用的测试来确定一个人是雇员还是独立承包商, which focused on the hiring entity’s ability to control how the work was performed.

Instead, the California Supreme Court and the State Legislature has found that a hiring entity, in order to prove that an independent contractor is not an employee, must establish each of the three factors embodied in the ABC test—namely, that the worker:

A. 是否在工作表现方面不受雇用单位的控制和指导, both under the contract for the performance of the work and in fact; and

B. Performs work that is outside the usual course of the hiring entity’s business; and

C. Is customarily engaged in an independently established trade, occupation, or business of the same nature as the work performed.

This is a tough standard, 许多加州的雇主将需要看一看他们目前使用的任何独立承包商,看他们是否符合ABC测试——特别是仔细看因素“B”.” There are also exceptions and legal challenges to this rule, so proceed with caution when hiring independent contractors.


Alternative Workweek Scheduling

In California, 雇主可以设立“可选择工作周”,允许员工每天工作超过8小时,并避免加班罚款. 然而,实施另一种工作周计划需要严格遵守州的指导方针. Among other things, 无记名投票必须在受工作周时间表影响的单位的三分之二以上通过. 如果在采用替代工作周时未能遵循正确的程序,则可能导致替代工作周时间表无效,并导致高达四年的未支付加班费罚款, interest penalties and attorney fees.                 

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Overtime Issues

Overtime Pay Rates

California’s hourly overtime laws are much more employee-friendly than other states. Not paying overtime correctly can lead to huge penalties for employers. 

California employees are entitled to time-and-a-half (1.每天工作8个小时或每周工作40个小时以上, and double overtime pay after working 12 hours in a workday. In addition, 加州有一个工作周中连续工作7天的7天加班费. 许多这些“对员工友好”的加班法与其他州和联邦法律形成了鲜明对比,后者只要求在一周工作40小时后才支付加班费.


Misclassification of Employees

错误地将一名员工归类为“免除”加班、用餐和休息要求的员工,可能会导致长达四年的补发加班费, plus interest and penalties.

When analyzing overtime exemptions, 联邦法律和大多数州法律都聚焦于工作任务,并询问“主要”职责是否属于豁免性质. 而加州则采用了两种主要的测试方法来确定一个人是否是免税员工. 首先,雇主必须确保员工将超过50%的时间用于履行“免税”职责,这必须包括大量的独立判断.  Second, 他们必须进行工资测试,以确保员工的工资至少是国家最低工资的两倍.

Out of State Employees Working in California 

Since a 2011 court decision, 在加州以外工作的员工,如果在加州工作一整天或几周,必须根据加州法律要求支付加班费,而他们在加州工作. More recent decisions have further clarified these rules for out of state workers, 所以你一定要知道,在加州临时工作的州外员工有什么适用条件.

Wages for Employees in the Computer Industry

Computer software employees in 2022 must earn at least $50 per hour, or $8,679.16 per month, or $104,149.81 per year to be exempt from California’s overtime laws. This salary is adjusted annually according to the consumer price index. 

Wages for Physicians and Surgeons

加州每年对执业医师和外科医生的加班豁免“工资测试”进行调整. 2022年,有资格获得豁免的执业医生和外科医生的最低时薪为91美元.07. 

雇主如果认为其雇员可能符合任何豁免类别的要求,就需要重新审查豁免工作表上的要求,以确保雇员符合职责和工资测试.  

Leaves of Absence and Vacation Policies

Leave of Absence Laws

While most states have two or three required employee leaves of absence, California employers must provide over 20 leaves of absence to employees. Some unique examples of California Leave Laws include:

  • Military Leave, 哪一项规定允许从“战区”休假的部署军人的配偶休假去陪伴他们的配偶.
  • Job-protected time off for parents to deal with school discipline matters, attend school or child care activities, or deal with school or child care emergencies.
  • Paid time off for voting.
  • 加州怀孕残疾假适用于拥有5名或5名以上雇员的雇主,并给予与怀孕有关的残疾雇员最多4个月的假期. Unlike FMLA/CFRA, there is no one year service requirement.
  • California Family Rights Act (eff. Jan. 1, 2021), 雇员人数在5人或5人以上的雇主可以为符合条件的雇员提供12周的有保护的照顾自己的假期, a family member or bond with a child. 这是在怀孕残疾规定的时间之外,也可能是在联邦FMLA规定的时间之外.

California Healthy Families Act—Paid Sick Leave Law  

ALL employers, both public and private, are required to provide paid sick leave to all of their employees, with a few exceptions. 一些城市也制定了自己的带薪病假要求,超出了国家规定的计划. This comes with many compliance issues including:
•    Carryover and accrual requirements
•    Posting requirements
•    Record-keeping requirements

Crime Victims Leave—Required Notice

雇主必须在劳工专员准备的通知中提供具体信息,以告知每名雇员他们的权利, available in English and Spanish, to new employees upon hire and to other employees upon request. 

Vacation

当涉及到挣得和应计假期时,加州不允许“不使用就失去”的政策. Employers are allowed to put a reasonable “cap” or “cash-out” policy in place. Vacation pay is considered “wages” under California law; therefore, 当雇佣关系结束时,所有应计无薪日必须支付给雇员. 如果最后的工资不包括所有的休假时间,可能会导致等待时间长达30天的“滞纳金”.”

Los Angeles Skyline

Additional Requirements Exclusive to California

Harassment Prevention Training

Employers with 5 or more employees, must provide one (1) hour of harassment prevention training 对所有员工和所有主管每两年进行两(2)小时的骚扰预防培训. 主管的定义很宽泛,包括任何有权指导他人工作的人.

If you hire temporary or seasonal employees, 对临时员工的培训必须在三十(30)天内完成或在雇佣后100小时内完成. Temporary workers employed by a temporary agency must be trained by the temporary agency, not the client. 

Hiring Process

California also places many restrictions on employers when it comes to the hiring process. For example, 雇主一般不允许在被有条件雇佣前查询申请人的犯罪记录. Even after a conditional offer is extended, 雇主必须遵循特定的程序,然后才会根据申请人的犯罪史来拒绝他们的职位. 加州法律还禁止雇主在招聘过程中寻找薪资历史信息或依赖这些信息.

根据加州宪法,加州的雇员也有一定的隐私权. Employers should also exercise caution in using social media as a hiring tool. 加州法律禁止雇主向申请人(或员工)索要个人电子邮件或社交媒体密码.

Manager’s Liability

在加州,如果在性骚扰被举报后,管理者允许在工作场所继续发生性骚扰,他们将被追究个人责任. Managers can also be held responsible for dangerous work environments. 任何雇主或经理,如果实际知道隐藏的危险,但没有通知受影响的雇员和适当的国家机构,可被罚款或监禁,或两者兼有.

Non-compete Agreements

California employers cannot prevent former employees from working for competitors. Non-compete agreements in California are generally not valid. 加州法院认为竞业禁止协议“违反公共政策”(违反公共利益). Most other states will enforce such covenants when they are reasonable. California employers may enforce reasonable confidentiality, intellectual property assignment, non-solicitation and non-disclosure agreements.      

 

WARN Act—Layoffs and Business Closures

联邦工人调整和再培训通知法案(WARN)要求雇用一定数量员工的公司在大规模裁员或关闭工厂之前向特定实体提供书面通知. Employers can be liable for back pay, penalties up to $500 a day for each day of violation for a maximum of 60 days, 并为员工在违规期间的医疗费用承担本应由员工福利计划支付的费用. 加州版本的WARN法案比联邦版本的范围更广,影响的雇主也更多.

 

In Conclusion

California is a unique state when it comes to labor and employment laws. In addition, 全州的许多市和县都有自己的要求,为员工提供不同的或额外的福利. 其他州负责加州员工的人力资源专业人员可以从CEA的人力资源专家那里获得他们需要的人力资源帮助.

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